A Documentary History of Cherokee Removal

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The following documents were collected as research for a biography of Augustin S. Clayton, the judge of original jurisdiction for most of the Cherokee cases leading to the  Supreme Court decision in Worcester v Georgia. Most of the articles found in this collection were extracted from newspapers held at American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts, on seed-fund for research from Georgia Gwinnett College. Others were extracted from digitized newspaper collections found in the Digital Library of Georgia. Exceptions to the rule are usually noted.

Other than providing a basic description of each document, I purposely omitted explanatory headnotes or editorial comments about the documents in the desire for readers to generate their own questions or interpretations. Instead, I have tried to list the documents chronologically so that they may tell the story as one might come to understand by following events as they were recounted in newspapers.

1826 October North American Review Vol 23 pp 470-474 – Critical Notice of Elias Boudinot, An Address to the Whites, delivered in the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, May 26, 1826. Extracted from Google Books by Michael Gagnon

1827 March 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – untitled editorial on US Government Indian Policy re Georgia

1827 March 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), pp2-3 – Letter of Gov Troup to Georgia delegation of Congress re Georgia v Creeks in New Treaty

1827 May 25 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – untitled editorial on Creek Removal effects on Georgia

1827 June 1 Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC), The Cherokee Indians – Tenn newspaper reports Cherokee to create written constitution

1827 June 22 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – untitled editorial fearing Cherokee interference with Georgia occupying Creek Lands of Old Treaty

1827 June 22 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Georgia Messenger reports Major Ridge riling Creek against removal from their lands

1827 July 13 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – July 4 Volunteer Toast from Jefferson, Jackson county, seeks Cherokee lands

1827 August 3 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Alabama Journal reports Arkansas lands ready for Creek-Cherokee inhabitants

1827 August 4 Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA) – Milledgeville Recorder editorial re effects of new Cherokee Constitution

1827 October 26 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cherokee avoid meeting w Treaty Commissioner

1827 October 26 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Advertisement for Atticus Essays, Vindication of Rights of Georgia

1827 November 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – In Senate – notice to extend Georgia laws over Cherokee

1827 November 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Message, Executive Department, Nov 6 – State of State address, mentions Cherokee Lands

1827 November 23 Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA) – Editorial re Gov Troup’s speech re Cherokee lands

1827 November 30 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – House of Representatives – resolution to write memorial to Congress re Cherokee Lands

1827 December 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – House of Representatives – Nov 30 – Notes debates on extension of Georgia Law over Cherokee

1827 December 12 Letter of Governor John Forsyth to Tennessee Governor Sam Houston, regarding transmission of Cherokee Constitution, found in Keith Read Collection in the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable using ID# KRC085

1827 December 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – In Senate, Bills Passed – includes adding Cherokee territory to existing counties

1827 December 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – laws being passed includes extending Georgia’s jurisdiction over Cherokee

1827 December 19 Western Intelligencer, Religious, Literary and Political (Hudson, OH), p1 – The Cherokee Phoenix

1827 December 26 Western Intelligencer, Religious, Literary and Political (Hudson, OH) – Printing Press and Types for the Cherokee Nation

1828 January 23 Letter of James Barbour, Sec of War, transmitting to Congress the list of Cherokee entitled to private reservations under treaty of 1819. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH088

1828 January 25 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Creek Affairs – Macon Telegraph reports Cherokee Intermeddlers involved in settling Creek Treaty affairs

1828 February 1 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – In Congress – Wilson Lumpkin complains to Congress re Cherokee forming permanent government

1828 February 1 Vermont Chronicle (Bellows Falls, VT) – Cherokee Constitution

1828 February 2 Saturday Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia, PA), p1 – Cherokee Constitution reported by GA newspapers

1828 February 5 Daily National Journal (Washington, DC) – Notice of Georgia Legislature memorial to Congress presented by Cobb to Senate

1828 February 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Legal Notice of Gov Forsyth regarding Cherokee Constitution and Georgia’s legal jurisdiction

1828 February 21 Cherokee Phoenix, pp1-2 – Constitution of the Cherokee Nation (July 1827)

1828 February 22 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Congressional Committee on Indian Affairs reports on desire to remove Cherokee

1828 February 28 Cherokee Phoenix, pp1-2 – Constitution of the Cherokee Nation (Continued)

1828 March 6 Cherokee Phoenix, p1 – Constitution of the Cherokee Nation (Concluded)

1828 March 6 Cherokee Phoenix, p1 – Report of a joint Committee in the Legislature of Georgia, on the Cherokee Lands

1828 March 6 Cherokee Phoenix, p2 – Editorial Explanation of why more Cherokee than English sections of constitution printed

1828 March 6 Cherokee Phoenix, p2 – Editorial re meaning of Native American newspaper and constitution

1828 March 6 Cherokee Phoenix, p2 – Cherokee Constitution – Editorial from NY Ad

1828 March 21 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Wilde’s resolution in Congress re Federal Gov’t negotiations w Cherokee as sovereign nation

1828 March 25 Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA) – A Cherokee Newspaper

1828 March 28 Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA) – Cherokee Indians – statistics of Cherokee in NC

1828 March 28 Vermont Chronicle (Bellows Falls, VT) – Cherokee Alphabet – reports Worcester wrote article for Phoenix

1828 March 28 Vermont Chronicle (Bellows Falls, VT) – reprints Cherokee Phoenix editorial re Georgia report on Cherokee Lands

1828 April 9 Western Intelligencer, Religious, Literary and Political (Hudson, OH) – Mr Jefferson’s Speech to the Cherokees (1809)

1828 April 10 Cherokee Phoenix – Notices re Cherokee to meet agent re Constitution, editorial re extension of GA laws, and church attendance

1828 April 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Indian Affairs – Sec of War reponds to Wilde’s resolution declaring never recognized Cherokee constitutional government

1828 April 24 Cherokee Phoenix – Cherokee Constitution – Lengthy comments and documents re meeting with Indian Agent re constitution

1828 May 14 Cherokee Phoenix – Correspondence – Lengthy 1827 documents re explaining to Indian Agents that they must await regular Council mtg in October to talk with Council

1828 May 14 Western Intelligencer, Religious, Literary and Political (Hudson, OH) – A New Plan to Procure Cherokee Lands – seems to believe most would remove west voluntarily

1828 May 15 Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC) – Further Debate in Congress – NC Cherokee

1828 May 15 Statesman & Gazette (Natchez, MS), Cherokee Constitution – editorial from Cherokee Phoenix, April 24, 1828

1828 May 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Georgia Journal commentary on extinguishing Cherokee land claims in Georgia

1828 May 21 Cherokee Phoenix – Correspondence – Lengthy 1827 documents re explaining to Indian Agents that they cn call a mtg, but must await regular Council mtgs

1828 June 10 Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina Gazette (Raleigh, NC) – Cherokee Phoenix Editorial re Cherokee Constitution

1828 June 18 Cherokee Phoenix – Statistical Tables Of the Several Districts Composing the Cherokee Nation

1828 June 25 Cherokee Phoenix – Correspondence – Lengthy 1823 documents re relations bn Cherokee and US

1828 June 28 Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA) – reports editorial in Cherokee Phoenix expecting Cherokee rejection of emigration treaty

1828 July 2 Cherokee Phoenix – Correspondence – Lengthy 1823 documents re relations bn Cherokee and US

1828 July 30 Cherokee Phoenix – Correspondence – US Commissioners seek Cherokee Lands for Canal or RR

1828 August 6 Cherokee Phoenix – Correspondence -Cherokee Language

1828 August 13 Cherokee Phoenix – Communications -Invention of the Cherokee Alphabet

1828 August 19 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – The Cherokee – Arkansas Cherokee reported unhappy with latest treaty

1828 September 2 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Invention of the Cherokee Alphabet

1828 September 3 Cherokee Phoenix – Notice that principle chiefs to tour nation preparing people for arrival of Indian Agents and Arkansas Cherokee

1828 September 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Federal Commissioners reported in TN to convince Cherokee to emigrate

1828 September 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Mobile Register reports failure to obtain Cherokee land for proposed canal

1828 September 24 Cherokee Phoenix, p1 – Washington and the Cherokees (concluded)

1828 October 22 Cherokee Phoenix, p1 – General Council of the Cherokee Nation – Message of the Principal Chief

1828 November 8 Daily National Journal (Washington, DC) – Cherokee Government

1828 November 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Extracts from the Governor’s Speech – discusses ongoing problems between Georgia and Federal Government over Cherokees

1828 November 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Clayton elected Judge of Western Circuit

1828 November 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), pp3-4 – Governor’s Message – Complete Speech from Nov 4

1828 November 20 Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC) – Cherokee Government

1828 December 2 Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC) – The Cherokee Council – Richmond Compiler comments on Cherokee Government

1828 December 9 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Southron Recorder editorial re Cherokee refusal to grant land in AL for canal

1828 December 10 Cherokee Phoenix – Editorial v Savannah commentary on Message of Principle Chiefs

1828 December 20 Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA) – Georgia Legislature House of Representatives – discusses further extension of GA laws over Cherokee

1828 December 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cherokee Lands in North Carolina

1828 December 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Georgia Legislature – laws and resolutions debated in GA House over Cherokee

1828 December 29 Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA) – Cherokee Lands – Iverson Resolutions in GA Legislature

1828 December 29 Cherokee Phoenix – Editorial and Extracts from GA Legislature on Cherokee Lands

1829 January 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Captions and Provisions of the Acts passed in November and December 1828

1829 January 13 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Editorial re extension of Georgia laws over Cherokee

1829 January 13 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Captions and Provisions of the Acts passed in November and December 1828 (Concluded)

1829 January 27 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), pp2-3 – Lumpkin’s Jan 5 Resolution in US House to remove Cherokee from Georgia

1829 February 10 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cherokee Lands

1829 April 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Gold – Machinery used in gold mining in NC

1829 April 21 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Gold – SC gold discovery

1829 May 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – notice of surveyor leaving Athens to define boundary bn Creek-Cherokee lands

1829 May 19 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Letter of Wiley Thompson describing conversation with Andrew Jackson re Georgia-Cherokee relations

1829 June 2 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Survey of Creek-Cherokee Boundary

1829 June 9 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Editorial re Jackson Administration’s relations to Cherokee

1829 June 9 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Cherokee Indians – Documents of Jackson Admin addressed to Creek and Cherokee encouraging emigration

1829 June 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Announces map of Creek lands jointly claimed by GA and Cherokee

1829 June 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Protest of surveying of Cherokee land and reply

1829 July 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Sarcastic editorial re NY Journal of Commerce siding w Cherokee

1829 July 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Gold Region – describes gold in western NC and rumors elsewhere

1829 July 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Creeks and Cherokees – reply of War Dept to Jeremiah Evarts’ essays

1829 July 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Jackson Admin claims Arkansas Cherokee happy

1829 August 4 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – More Gold – Gold rumored to be plentiful in Habersham County and in western NC

1829 August 4 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Indian Hostilities – Macon Telegraph refutes Columbus Enquirer claim of imminent Indian War w Cherokee

1829 August 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Cherokees and the (NY) Journal of Commerce

1829 August 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Editorial and Document re imminent war w Cherokees

1829 August 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Darien Phoenix editorial re inevitability of Cherokee emigration

1829 August 25 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Indians – US Telegraph editorial supporting Creek-Cherokee removal policy

1829 August 25 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Cherokee Phoenix reports Cherokee ill ease over possible cession by delegation in DC

1829  September 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Georgia Gold – Georgia Courier reports gold discover near Clarkesville in Habersham County

1829 September 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Letter of Sec War Eaton explains Indian Removal Policy of Jackson

1829 September 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Machine for washing Gold – legal notice of patent agent

1829 October 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cherokee Indians – Augusta Constitutionalist article re commissioners for emigration appointed and damages to Cherokee property

1829 October 13 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Columbus Enquirer article re Creek and Cherokee emigration

1829 October 13 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – More Gold – few grains of gold found in flint near Athens

1829 October 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Southern Recorder reports gold discovered in Habersham County by General Cleveland

1829 October 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Mr Niles – editorial re Niles Register to publish William Penn Essays as pamphlet

1829 November 3 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Clayton issues warrant for arrest of Cherokees in Saunders case

1829 November 3 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Gold Region – Academic paper read in NYC describing mineral wealth from Alabama to Delaware

1829 November 10 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Racist notice of officers of Cherokee Council

1829 November 10 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Message – extract of Gov Forsyth’s annual message re Cherokee

1829 November 14 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p2 – Clayton issues warrant in Sauders Case in Cherokee Nation

1829 Novmeber 17 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Columbus Enquirer editorial explaining need for Cherokee emigration

1829 November 17 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – reports John Ross speech opposing emigration

1829 November 17 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – reports William Penn Essays published in Cherokee

1829 November 20 Charleston Courier p2 Clayton issues warrant in first Cherokee case

1829 November 24 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Proceedings of the Legislature – resolution to take testimony re Creek-Cherokee boundary

1829 November 24 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Capp’s Gold Mine – Describes gold mining operation apparently in western NC

1829 December 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Former surveyors to take testimony on Creek-Cherokee boundary

1829 December 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Another Gold Mine – Sarcastic letter comparing legislative process in Milledgeville to recent gold mining discoveries

1829 December 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Cherokee emigrants to Arkansas stripped of citizenship

1829 December 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Creek Line – Federal government to take testimony on Creek-Cherokee boundary

1829 December 10 Cherokee Phoenix – Saunders

1829 December 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Proceedings of the Legislature – details of bill stripping Cherokee of gov’t authority

1829 December 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – To Editor of Cherokee Phoenix – Cherokee view of Saunders case

1829 December 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Update on Creek-Cherokee Boundary Testimony

1829 December 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Rpt of Committee on state of Republic – lengthy report of need to strip Cherokee of gov’t authority

1829 December 22 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Extract of Andrew’s Jackson’s State of Union Speech dealing with Indian Removal

1829 December 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Bureau of Indian Affairs report shows congruence of Federal and State intent to force Cherokee to emigrate

1829 December 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – GA legislatures protest some portion of new law over Cherokee

1829 December 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Indian Agent to report on Creek-Cherokee Boundary

1829 December 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – notice of GA boundary commissioners making report

1829 December 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – NY Journal of Commerce and Cherokee

1829 December 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Joseph Marshall Speech to Creek on Indian Removal

1829 December 30 Remarks of John Coffee on character and credibility of those giving testimony in determining boundary between Creek and Cherokee nations. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH073

1830 February 9 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Gold Mining – Gold mines active in Indian Country

1830 March 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Gold Gold – Gold lot for sale in Habersham County

1830 March 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Troops stationed near Lawrenceville GA to stop gold diggers

1830 March 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Judge Clayton’s Opinion – Clayton’s decision in Saunders case

1830 April 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Case similar to Saunders decision by Clayton heard in Alabama

1830 April 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Columbus Enquirer reports Army excluding gold diggers from Indian Country

1830 April 10 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p2 – Judge Clayton explains cannot expel gold diggers from Cherokee Nation without state law authorizing

1830 April 10 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p2 – Judge Clayton’s Opinion – Saunders case

1830 April 10 Macon Telegraph Clayton defends releasing gold diggers in Cherokee Nation

1830 April 10 Macon Telegraph Clayton’s opinion re Saunders case

1830 April 27 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Augusta Constitutionalist rumors that Governor will call special session to deal with gold hunters in Cherokee Nation

1830 April 30 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p2 – Judge Clayton’s Opinion – Saunders case

1830 May 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Troops reported deployed from Tampa to Alabama and thence to Georgia to stop gold diggers

1830 May 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Gold discovered in Cherokee Nation in Tennessee

1830 May 28 Indian Removal Act. Courtesy Library of Congress. American Memory. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: US Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. Statutes at Large. 21st Congress. 1st Session.

1830 June 1 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Communicated – Letter of Paul Pry wonders if Milledgeville editor will address Clayton’s Saunders decision

1830 June 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Gold diggers put to flight by army without incident

1830 June 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Fashionable Tour – Travels through Georgia’s gold country

1830 June 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Conveyance – Transportation provided to gold regions of Georgia

1830 June 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Troops reported patrolling gold regions of Georgia

1830 June 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Georgia law now extended over Cherokee lands and gold diggers expelled

1830 June 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – A Proclamation – two notices in which Gilmer extends Georgia law over Cherokee lands and excludes gold diggers

1830 June 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – For Sale – John Nesbit sells gold lot in Habersham

1830 June 20 Opinion of William Wirt, in case of Cherokee Nation v Georgia, Reprinted from Cherokee Phoenix, found in the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# PAM018.

1830 June 22 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Gold Diggers – Clayton decides case of William Robbins

1830 June 26 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – The Gold Diggers – explains Judge Clayton’s ruling in Robbins case

1830 June 26 Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia) – Clayton decision re Gold Diggers

1830 June 26 Charleston Courier p2 Clayton released gold diggers on Cherokee nation

1830 June 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Habersham Gold Mines – describes mines and agent appointed to remove illegal miners

1830 July 3 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – letter to editor says doubts Judge Clayton could be induced to give up Bench for Congress

1830 July 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Lengthy discussion of arrest of more gold diggers and ruling by Clayton

1830 July 10 Macon Telegraph p2 Clayton releases gold diggers from custody for constitutional reasons

1830 July 17 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Correction of Errors – corrects previous explaination of Judge Clayton’s ruling in Robbins case

1830 July 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – 2 humorous stories from Macon Telegraph about gold mining

1830 July 27 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – John Ross’ Letter – extract quotes US army officer explaining coordination between US and Georgia troops to stop gold diggers

1830 August 3 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – 13 gold diggers arrested in Cherokee Nation

1830 August 7 Letter J. W. Jackson to Governor George R. Gilmer, in Telamon Cuyler Collection in Southeastern Native American Documents Database in Digital Library of Georgia

1830 August 7 Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), p2 – Army enroute thru Gainesville to arrest gold-diggers under orders of Judge Clayton

1830 August 10 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Troops erroneously reported having killed 10 gold miners

1830 August 10 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – To Colonel Hugh Montgomery – Georgian gold diggers complain that non-Georgians continue to mine in Cherokee Nation

1830 August 17 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Notice of arrest of illegal miners brought to charges before Clayton’s court in Hall County

1830 August 17 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Local Editorial on Clayton’s Charge to the Grand Jury of Clarke County

1830 August 17 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Clayton’s Charge to the Grand Jury of Clarke County

1830 August 17 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Editorial on Eaton’s letter to Indian Board and Georgia’s efforts to remove Natives

1830 August 17 Athenian (Athens, GA) pp2-3, Reprint of June 30 Letter of Sec of War Eaton to Indian Board regarding Georgia’s efforts to remove Natives

1830 August 17 Athenian (Athens, GA) p3, Presentments of the Grand Jury of Clarke County, August Term 1830 – replies to Clayton’s Charge

1830 August 18 Augusta Chronicle – Clayton Charge to Clarke Grand Jury

1830 August 21 Federal Union (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – In side note to article on Athenian editor OP Shaw, contradicts rumor that Clayton runs Athenian

1830 August 21 Charleston Courier p2 Clayton to try trespassers into Cherokee gold region

1830 August 21 Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), p3 – Athenian reports Clayton proceedings re 1 white and 2 Cherokee gold diggers

1830 August 21 Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), p2 – Governor Gilmer rumored about to retire and expect Lumpkin and Clayton as rivals for post

1830 August 28 Macon Telegraph Clayton Charge to Clarke Grand Jury

1830 August 31 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – John Ross seeks injunction against gold diggers in Federal Court in Charleston

1830 September State v George Tassels in Hall County Superior Court, September Term, as reported in 1 Dudley 229 (1830) found in Thomas Johnson Michie (annotator), Georgia Reports, Charlton-65 Georgia. Book 1, containing T.U.P. Charlton, R. M. Charlton, Dudley and Georgia Decisions (Charlottesville, Virginia: Michie Company, Law Publishers, 1903), pp. 478-482. Extracted from Google Books by Michael Gagnon.

1830 September 1 Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), p2 – editorial discounts rumor that Lumpkin or Clayton waiting for Gilmer to resign

1830 September 4 Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), p2 – Richmond Enquirer editorial summarizes Gold Diggers cases flowing through Clayton’s courtroom

1830 September 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Mr Wirt and the Cherokees – Georgia Journal editorial re upcoming lawsuit to Supreme Ct, Cheorkee Nation v Georgia

1830 September 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Letter of Mr Wirt to Governor Gilmer – start of lawsuit, Cheorkee Nation v Georgia

1830 September 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), pp2-3 – Letter of Governor Gilmer to Mr Wirt – Gilmer responds to Wirt

1830 September 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – notes passage of 60 federal troops through town enroute to Cherokee Nation

1830 September 7 Athenian (Athens, GA) p3, Extract from the Grand Jury of Wilkes County approving Clayton’s Charge

1830 September 11 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – The Indians – reprints Richmond Enquirer piece on golddiggers released by Clayton

1830 September 11 An Appeal of the Cherokees to the People of the United States. Found in the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# PAM005.

1830 September 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Milledgeville newspapers report additional federal troops enroute to Cherokee Nation to repel gold diggers

1830 September 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Gold – Georgia Journal reports pitched battles between whites over gold in Cherokee Nation

1830 September 21 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – at least 100 gold diggers expelled from Cherokee Nation by US troops

1830 September 18 Federal Union (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Presentments – Twiggs Grand Jury supports Clayton’s charge to Clarke Grand Jury re Cherokee

1830 September 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – For the Athenian – purported letter from A Cherokee saying he would prefer moving west and not be duped by his leaders

1830 September 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Proclamation – Governor calls legislation session early to deal with gold in Cherokee Nation

1830 October North American Review Vol 31 pp 396-442 – Speeches on the Indian Bill – in April and May, 1830. Extracted from Google Books by Michael Gagnon.

1830 October 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Indian Sovereignty – US Telegraph editorial on exchange bn Wirt and Gilmer starting Cherokee Nation v Georgia

1830 October 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – more troops pass through Athens enroute to Cherokee Nation

1830 October 5 Athenian (Athens, GA) p3, Presentments of the Grand Jury of Jackson County, August Term 1830

1830 October 9 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Indian Affairs Difficulties of Georgia – letter to editor comments on Clayton’s charge to Clarke Grand Jury

1830 October 26 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), pp3-4 – Governor’s Message – Gilmer explains why called early session of legislature to deal with gold mining in Cherokee Nation

1830 October 3 Letter of Cherokee Principal Chief John Ross to David Irwin and Thomas G. Barron, lawyers retained by the Cherokee Nation to pursue their claims against the state of Georgia. Denounces treaty proposed by John F. Schermerhorn. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH024

1830 November 13 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Georgia and the Indians – Judge Clayton convicts white man for robbing Indians

1830 November 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Georgia Legislature – Floyd reports to senate on Governors request abolishing Cherokee govt in GA

1830 November 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Legislature – expects Governor to create state military force to deal with gold diggers in Cherokee Nation once US troops withdraw

1830 November 16 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Gilmer forwards letter from War Department announcing Jackson policy of allowing state sovereignty over Indians

1830 November 17 Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), p2 – Georgia Journal lists new rules Judges Convention approved, includes Clayton

1830 November 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – after lengthy editorial on Indian Affairs, editor notes conclusion of Convention of Judges convened by Clayton re Tassels case

1830 November 23 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – short editorial calls for competent law enforcement in Cherokee Nation

1830 November 30 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – notes conviction of Tassels for murder, execution set for December 24 in Gainesville

1830 November 30 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Gold Mines – Federal troops in Cherokee Nation ordered to winter quarters leaving gold country exposed to trespass

1830 November 30 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Decision of the Convention of Judges – jurisdiction in Tassels case

1830 December 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Executive Department – Governor requests Andrew Jackson to remove federal troops from gold fields in Cherokee Nation

1830 December 7 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Interesting to Gold Diggers – Gold country of Cherokee exposed to trespass until Jan 1 1831 when GA takes possession

1830 December 8 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 1 – From the Athenian – Tassels convicted but expected to appeal

1830 December 11 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia) p 3 – reports William H Crawford author of convention of judges decision

1830 December 11 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – Report of the case of the State vs George Tassels for the Murder of Cornelius Dougherty – written by Judge Clayton

1830 December 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cherokee Land Bill – lengthy negative editorial about Georgia’s process of taking control of Cherokee Nation from federal government

1830 December 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Indians – Kentucky editorial re forthcoming Cherokee Nation v Georgia case

1830 December 14 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Executive Department – Governor notes removal of federal troops and requests legislation to take possession of gold mines in Cherokee Nation

1830 December 21 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p1 – An Act – Legislation empowers Governor to take possession of gold mines in Cherokee Nation

1830 December 25 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, GA), p 3 – Writ of Error summons of Supreme Court to Georgia re Tassels

1830 December 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – George Tassels – Editorial on execution of Tassels sees serious collision with federal government

1830 Opinion on the Right of the State of Georgia to Extend Her Laws Over the Cherokee Nation, by William Wirt, Esq. (Baltimore: F. Lucas, Jr., 1830). Courtesy of Internet Archive. Adobe Acrobat file.

1831 January Term, US Supreme Court. Case of the Cherokee Nation vs The State of Georgia with an appendix by Richard Peters. Philadelphia: John Grigg, 1831. Courtesy Google Books. Adobe Acrobat file.

1831 January 1 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – Our Indian Affairs – reports Tassels execution and fallout

1831 January 1 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – Appointments by the Governor – Sanford and Nelson appointed to Georgia Guard

1831 January 1 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), pp3-4 – From the Georgia Journal – Gov Gilmer informs legislature of Supreme Ct writ in Tassels case

1831 January 4 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Executive Department – Governor receives permission from legislature to refuse writ of Supreme Ct in Tassels case

1831 January 8 Cherokee Phoenix – Saunders

1831 January 8 Cherokee Phoenix – Tassels

1831 January 8 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – From the Georgia Journal – John Ross serves notice of Supreme Court case Cherokee Nation v GA resulting from Tassels case

1831 January 8 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – Executive Department – Law enacted to authorize Georgia Guard to take control of gold mines in Cherokee Nation

1831 January 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Letter in which Chief John Ross serves notice of lawsuit before Supreme Court on Governor Gilmer

1831 January 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Appointments by the Governor – Sanford and Nelson to lead Georgia Guard in Cherokee lands

1831 January 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – notes manner in which Chief John Ross served notice of lawsuit before Supreme Court on Governor Gilmer

1831 January 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), pp2-3 – Report of the case of State v George Tassels

1831 January 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Cherokee delegation explain that Cherokee will not make new treaty

1831 January 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – List of Acts (Concluded) – includes act to create Georgia Guard

1831 January 20 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – Georgia and the Supreme Court

1831 January 27 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), pp 1-2 – Georgia and the US Court – surveys press reports from around country

1831 January 29 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – Supposed Cases – Philadelphia paper says Georgia seems correct in re Cherokee

1831 January 29 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – The Gold Diggers – Nelson gives account of GA Guard arresting 11 following pitched battle

1831 January 29 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p4 Cherokee memorial to Congress mentions Clayton in Nat’l Intell

1831 January 29 Genius of Liberty (Leesburg, Virginia) p3 – Indian Preference – Tassels comments on his sentence, from Georgia Courier

1831 February Christian Advocate (Philadelphia), p 96 – United States – mentions missionaries to Indians in Georgia

1831 February 1 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Tennessee Conference – Methodist conference asks its missionaries to refrain from political activity in Georgia

1831 February 5 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – Columbus Democrat defends John Marshall for Tassels writ

1831 February 10 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 2 – Georgia and the US Court – surveys press reports from around country

1831 February 10 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), pp 2-3 – Letters of Sanford to Gilmer re Georgia Guard in Cherokee Nation

1831 February 10 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – To the Editors – Letters about Georgia and Supreme Court, mentions Clayton

1831 February 12 Cherokee Phoenix – Tassels

1831 February 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Editorial re alleged abuses by Georgia Guard

1831 February 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Col Sanford to Gov Gilmer – offiical report of GA Guard re arresting gold miners in Cherokee Nation

1831 February 17 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 2 – Another Collision – editor wishes SC would act as conclusively as GA did with Tassels

1831 February 17 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – State Rights – NY aligns itself w GA against Supreme Ct interference

1831 February 22 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Colonel Nelson Gold Diggers etc – Georgia Guard entrusted with arresting gold diggers appears to run amock among inhabitants of Hall County

1831 February 22 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Letter of Col J. W. A. Sanford to Governor Gilmer – Official report of Georgia Guard entrusted with arresting gold diggers

1831 February 26 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), pp2-3 – Defends Gilmer in Tassels case, but says will not lead Clark party in GA to nullification

1831 March Missionary Herald 27 (Boston), pp 79-80 – Resolutions and Statements of the Missionaries Relative to the Contemplated Plan of Removing the Indians

1831 March 5 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – El Dorado – describes gold mine in Habersham County

1831 March 10 Observer and Telegraph (Hudson, Ohio), p3 – Draconic Law of Georgia – religious newspaper reprints Washington Chronicle piece quoting missionary planning for imprisonment

1831 March 19 Supreme Court Decision of Cherokee Nation v Georgia reported by Peters. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH076

1831 March 26 Macon Telegraph p3 Cherokee Missionaries sent to Clayton

1831 March 26 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – Georgia and the Cherokee – reports outcome of Cherokee Nation v Georgia

1831 March 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Superior Court Western Ciruit – mentions actions against missionaries in Cherokee Nation, trial of Col Nelson of GA Guard deferred

1831 March 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Supreme Court of the U States – National Journal article re Cherokee Nation v Georgia

1831 March 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Post Script – claims US Supreme Ct ruled against Cherokee, leaving them no choice but to emigrate

1831 April 2 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – Athenian reports Missionaries arraigned in Gwinnett Sup Ct

1831 April 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Case – Habeas Corpus, State v Worcester, Gwinnett Sup Ct, March Term 1831

1831 April 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Cherokee Question – Editorial and letter from Washington on Supreme Court decision in Cherokee Nation v Georgia

1831 April 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Town of Gainesville, Hall County – town development benefitted from presence of gold diggers

1831 April 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Chief Justice Marshall – discusses delay of Marshall’s retirement due to expected Cherokee cases

1831 April 5 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – The Cherokee Nation vs The State of Georgia – Peters, official reporter of Supreme Court to issue special issue with this case

1831 April 12 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p3 Editorial re missionaries arrest mentions Clayton

1831 April 19 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Discussion of missionaries in Cherokee Nation

1831 April 19 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Cherokees – extract of letter of John Ridge says their hopes lay with election of Clay in 1832

1831 April 21 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), pp 1-2 – Speech of Haynes of GA in Congress in reply to Evertt of MA over Cherokee – mentions Tassels

1831 April 26 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Macon newspaper reports local religious newspaper is in support of Georgia against the Missionaries in the Cherokees Nation

1831 April 26 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Cherokees Nation vs The State of Georgia – The Supreme Court Decision

1831 April 27 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p2 Items includes report re missionaries in Clayton’s court

1831 May Missionary Herald 27 (Boston), pp 165-166 – Arrest of the Missionaries of the Board in the Cherokee Nation

1831 May 16 Letter of Georgia Governor George Gilmer to Samuel Worcester, New Echota, informing Worcester that Georgia will enforce its passport laws in the Cherokee Nation. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH044

1831 May 28 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – An Excursion in the Cherokee Nation – says leaders are white descended and commends work of Sanford of GA Guard

1831 June 7 Letter of Elizur Butler, Hiweis Mission, to Georgia Governor George Gilmer, Milledgeville. Explains why Butler cannot comply with Georgia’s passport law. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH046

1831 June 10 Letter of Samuel Worcester, New Echota, to Georgia Governor George Gilmer, Milledgeville. Replies to Gilmer’s threat to arrest Worcester for violating Georgia’s passport law. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH045

1831 June 21 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – More Arrests – two more missionaries arrested by Georgia Guard in Cherokee Nation

1831 June 23 Letter of Miss Fuller of Hightower Mission to Samuel Worcester at New Echota, giving details of Mr. Thompson’s second arrest by the Georgia Guard. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH047

1831 June 25 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – Partisan tirade against Gilmer by Veritas includes importance of racism against Indians

1831 June 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Charleston Observer – editorial about Charleston paper complaining of treatment of missionaries by Georgia Guard

1831 June 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), pp2-3 – From the Cherokee Phoenix – Official correspondence of Georgia Guard in expelling Missionaries from Cherokee Nation

July 1831 North American Review Vol 33 pp. 136-154, The Cherokee Cases. Gives details of Cherokee Nation v Georgia and reaction from Jackson Administration. Courtesy of Making of America, Cornell.

1831 July Missionary Herald 27 (Boston), p 229 – Arrest of the Missionaries in the Cherokee Nation

1831 July 1 Extract of Letter from John Thompson of Hightower Mission describing his second arrest by the Georgia Guard. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH048

1831 July 9 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – Gold washing machine described

1831July 19 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – continued exchange with Charleston Observer over arrest of missionaries in Cherokee Nation

1831 July 19 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – extract of editorial in Cherokee Phoenix by John Ridge on treatment of Creek emigrants by US government

1831 July 30 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – Governor Gilmer informs Missionaries they are not federal agents and thus subject to state law

1831 August Missionary Herald 27 (Boston), pp 247-254 – Cherokees – includes accounts of continued threatened arrest of the missionaries

1831 August 12 Vermont Chronicle (Windsor, Vermont), p3 – Cherokee Women Beware – Cherokee Pheonix report that GA Guard may whip women for insults

1831 August 12 Vermont Chronicle (Windsor, Vermont), p3 – Georgia and the Missionaries – describe arrest of TN Methodist missionary, McLeod

1831 August 20 Cherokee Phoenix – Tassels

1831 August 23 New-York Spectator (NYC), p3 – The Cherokee Missionaries – editorial commends readers to consider constitutional issues in GA treatment of missionaries

1831 August 23 New-York Spectator (NYC), pp2-3 – From the Cherokee Phoenix of July 30 – correspondence from Worcester about treatment by GA Guard

1831 August 30 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – description of process taken against Canatoo, unfortunately cut-off on left side

1831 September Christian Advocate 9 (Philadelphia), p 496 – United States – notices treatment of Missionaries in Georgia

1831 September Missionary Herald 27 (Boston), pp 281-284 – Cherokees – Further Proceedings against the Missionaries

1831 September Missionary Herald 27 (Boston), pp 299-302 – Cherokees – Further particulars respecting the Imprisonment of the Missionaries

1831 September 8 Federal Union (Milledgeville, Georgia) p1 – From the Athenian – describes habeas corpus release of Canatoo while awaiting decision

1831 September 8 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – roll call vote of GA legislature on resolutions re Tassels writ of error

1831 September 10 Cherokee Phoenix – Clayton rumored to allow mining

1831 September 16 Letter of Judge Augustin S. Clayton to Governor George R. Gilmer regarding conviction of Missionaries. Found in the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# TCC515

1831 September 17 Cherokee Phoenix – Missionaries and Canatoo

1831 September 17 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – To the Rev John Howard – letter takes Howard to task for defending Gilmer and GA Guard for treatment of Missionaries

1831 September 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – editorial supporting Governor and Georgia Guard against allegations of abuse toward arrested Missionaries in Cherokee Nation

1831 September 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Late Trials – describes conviction of Missionaries arrested in Cherokee Nation, and current public opinion

1831 September 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Presentments of the Grand Jury of Jackson County, August Term – approve deportment of Clayton as Judge

1831 September 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – in reviewing Gilmer Administration highlights during this election season, article chronicles activities of Georgia Guard in Cherokee Nation

1831 September 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – The Missionaries – letters denounce Methodist missionaries and defends actions of Georgia Guard

1831 September 24 Cherokee Phoenix – Clayton not allow mining – Canatoo

1831 September 24 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), pp1-2 – Governor’s Election – partisan article against Gilmer’s re-election recounts administration positions re Cherokee, GA Guard and Missionaries

1831 September 24 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – claims Georgia Guard has killed Cherokee without sanction of trial

1831 September 24 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – Executive vs the Judiciary – editor calls Gilmer a dictator for interfering with courts for Clayton’s Canatoo decision

1831 September 24 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – To the People of Georgia – letter of Early claims Gilmer failed to restrain Georgia Guard

1831 September 27 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Editorial Clayton’s Canatoo decision and Gov Gilmer’s letter to Georgia Guard to disregard Clayton’s decision

1831 September 27 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Editorial on Clayton’s sentencing of Missionaries convicted in Gwinnett

1831 September 27 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Errata – small correction to Judge Clayton’s Address printed on p4

1831 September 27 Athenian (Athens, GA) pp2-3, Indian Emigration – contains correspondence bn Georgia governor and Wash DC about Cherokee Removal

1831 September 27 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Who will you vote for – extract of a letter to editor explains Gilmer’s administration of Cherokee question

1831 September 27 Athenian (Athens, GA) p4, Clayton’s decision on the Missionaries at Gwinnett Superior Court, Sept Term 1831

1831 September 29 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 2 – Letter of Citizen responds to allegations re GA legislature on resolutions re Tassels writ of error

1831 September 29 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia) pp1-2 – Judge Clayton’s Opinion – State vs Canatoo

1831 October Christian Advocate (Philadelphia), p 552 – United States – notices conviction of Missionaries in Georgia

1831 October Missionary Herald (Boston), pp 332-3345 – Cherokees Extracted and transcribed from Google Books document by Michael Gagnon.

1831 October 1 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – Letter of Howell Cobb explains he now knows he misunderstood John Howard when he took him to task for supporting Gilmer

1831 October 4 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Editorial discusses Missionaries convicted in Gwinnett, and Clayton’s efforts to constrain Georgia Guard

1831 October 4 Athenian (Athens, GA) p2, Governor contacts keepers of state pen about Missionaries, and their reply

1831 October 4 New-York Spectator (NYC), p3 – the Cherokee Gold Mines – describes Gilmer nullifying Clayton’s Canatoo decision

1831 October 5 Providence Patriot and Columbian Phoenix (Providence, Rhode Island), p1 – Cherokee Missionaries – editorial from Jacksonian paper claims Georgia is within its rights

1831 October 7 New-York Spectator (NYC), p1 – Cherokee Missionaries – Letter describes how missionaries were sent to prison in chains – Jackson expected to nullify courts

1831 October 8 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), pp2-3 – The Missionaries – Letter of Nelson defending actions of GA Guard during custody of Cherokee Missionaries

1831 October 9 Cherokee Phoenix – Canatoo jailing in 1829

1831 October 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Correction of address of Worcester to Clayton’s court in Gwinnett County

1831 October 11 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Judge Clayton’s Opinion – State vs Canatoo

1831 October 15 Cherokee Phoenix – Clayton re Canatoo

1831 October 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – The Missionaries – Correspondence between Gov Gilmer and Col Nelson about alledged abuses by Georgia Guard

1831 October 18 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 and p2 – Judge Clayton’s Opinion – State vs Canatoo – Concluded

1831 October 22 Macon Telegraph p2 Dougherty expected to replace Clayton bc Canatoo decision

1831 October 22 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – editorial claims Troup Party purging all those not supportive of Gilmer in last election, including Clayton

1831 October 25 New-York Spectator (NYC), p3 – Cherokee Missionaries – Foreign Missions Board responds to imprisonment of Worcester and Butler

1831 November Missionary Herald (Boston), p 362 – 22nd Annual Mtg of Board – Cherokee Mission

1831 November Missionary Herald (Boston), pp 363-365 – Trail of Rev. Samuel A. Worcester and Doct. Elizur Butler, and Their Imprisonment in the Penitentiary of the State of Georgia Extracted and transcribed from Google Books document by Michael Gagnon.

1831 November 1 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Indian Question No III – letter of “Ghost of Powhatan” discusses Judge Clayton’s Canatoo Opinion

1831 November 8 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – A Crumb of Comfort – Maine newspaper does not condemn Georgia on Cherokee question

1831 November 10 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 2 – Message – Part of Gov Gilmer’s annual message that mentions Cherokee

1831 November 12 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – From Milledgeville – Clayton adminstered oath of office to members of Georgia Senate

1831 November 15 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Governor’s Message – extract of Gilmer’s last state of state sums up activities with Cherokee over last year

1831 November 17 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p2 – Convention – Clayton accepts nomination for Congress

1831 November 17 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 2 – Dinner for Gilmer – Grigsby Thomas of Columbus makes toast for Gilmer, mentions Tassels

1831 November 19 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – Private Correspondence – Snarky commentary on Dinner given for Gilmer, claims Clayton and other judges ousted from Bench at Gilmer’s direction

1831 November 19 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – Augusta Chronicle supports Schley and opposes Clayton for Congress

1831 November 19 Macon Telegraph p3 Clayton to be cashiered for following conscience

1831 November 24 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia) p2 – To the Voters of Georgia – discusses Clayton as congressional candidate and how opponents smear him with Canatoo decision

1831 November 24 Federal Union (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Congressional Election – gives details of Clayton’s experience as to why inferior candidate for Congress

1831 November 24 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Election – gives details of Clayton’s experience as to why superior candidate for Congress

1831 November 26 Macon Telegraph p1 editorial from Milledgeville Federal Union re Clayton as Congressional Candidate

1831 November 26 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p1 – Gov Gilmer’s Dinner Speech – Gilmer defends his administration including dealings with Cherokee, GA Guard and Clayton

1831 November 26 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p3 Reports Kent’s concurrence w Clayton re Canatoo

1831 November 26 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p3 Editorial re Clayton’s removal from judgeship re Canatoo

1831 November 28 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia) pp2-3 – Judge Clayton – requested reprint from NY Observer on Clayton’s sentence of Missionaries and followed by response from Clayton

1831 November 28 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p 3 – To the Voters of Georgia – Reminds voters that Clayton ruled on Cherokee cases while Schley opposed them

1831 November 29 New-York Spectator (NYC), p1 – Judge Clayton Removed – Chancellor Kents concurrence of Canatoo decision included

1831 November 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Congressional Election – explains opposition to Clayton on basis of Canatoo decision false

1831 November 29 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Judge Clayton – reprint of NY Observer attack on Clayton and his remarks in response

1831 November 30 Philadelphia Inquirer p2 – Items – Reports Kent re Clayton re Canatoo

1831 December Missionary Herald (Boston), pp 395-397 – The Imprisoned Missionaries

1831 December 1 Federal Union (Milledgeville, Georgia) p3 – Election for Congress – Opposition press explains why Clayton should not be elected to Congress

1831 December 1 Federal Union (Milledgeville, Georgia) p3 – Schley vs Clayton – Opposition press claims Clayton was Federalist and burned in effigy in Athens during War of 1812

1831 December 1 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Letter of Cincinnatus to the Troup Party of Georgia – Supports Clayton’s candidacy to Congress

1831 December 3 Macon Telegraph Clayton nomination for Congress

1831 December 3 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p2 – Wilson Lumpkin informs legislature he has been served notice to appear for Worcester v Georgia in Supreme Court

1831 December 3 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – editorial belittles Clayton’s integrity as unfit for Congressional election

1831 December 3 Macon Telegraph p3 Clayton Dismissal as Judge per Columbus Democrat

1831 December 3 Macon Telegraph p3 Clayton nomination for Congress per Federal Union

1831 December 3 Macon Telegraph p3 Clayton nomination for Congress per Hancock Advertiser

1831 December 3 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), p3 – explains Schley’s vote against legislature’s resolution re writ in Tassels case

1831 December 5 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Letter of Junius explains that all who voted Clayton out of judge support his congressional candidacy

1831 December 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Judge Schley The Supreme Court etc – says cannot trust Schley to uphold Georgia’s rights against Supreme Court

1831 December 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Gold Mines – describes the mines in northern Georgia and opportunities for use of other minerals found there

1831 December 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Missionaries vs Georgia – Gov Wilson Lumpkin updates Worcester v Georgia in progress

1831 December 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Presentments of the Grand Jury of Rabun County – Sorry that Clayton will be removed from Judgeship

1831 December 6 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Deferred Articles – extract of Gov Gilmer’s address to dinner in which he defends disobeying Clayton’s court order re Canatoo

1831 December 8 Federal Union (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – Georgia Legislature – explains Clayton’s removal from Bench, opposes election to Congress

1831 December 8 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville, Georgia), p2 – letter of Jefferson supporting election of Clayton over Schley

1831 December 8 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p2 – letter of Jefferson supporting election of Clayton over Schley

1831 December 10 Macon Telegraph p3 Clayton nomination for Congress per Federal Union

1831 December 10 Macon Telegraph p3 Letter to Fed Union raises questions regarding Clayton’s character, Federalism

1831 December 10 Cherokee Phoenix – Clayton

1831 December 13 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cherokee delegation to Washington passes through Athens

1831 December 13 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Clayton beats Schley in Clarke County in election for Congress

1831 December 15 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p1 – Cherokees – Reports John Ross’ message mentions Clayton re Canatoo

1831 December 16 Cherokee Phoenix – Saunders

1831 December 17 Macon Telegraph p3 Exchange of correspondence from Clayton to Glasscock re Clayton candidacy via Augusta Chronicle

1831 December 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Domestic – Letter of Wilson Lumpkin to legislature explaining his views on what to do with Cherokee lands

1831 December 20 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Election Returns – Clayton ahead of Schley by 849 votes so far in election for Congress

1831 December 24 Macon Telegraph Clayton election for Congress

1831 December 28 Letter of Cherokee Delegation to Washington, John Martin and John Ridge, to Cherokee Principle Chief, John Ross, in New Echota re efforts to present Cherokee Memorial to Congress. Found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives, and reproduced in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# CH012

1832 January 3 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – editorial re Charleston newspaper claiming Schley beat Clayton for Congress

1832 January 5 Southern Recorder (Milledgeville, Georgia), p3 – reports Clayton beat Schley by over 1,000 votes

1832 January 5 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville GA) Lumpkin declares Clayton elected to Congress

1832 January 9 Memorial of a delegation of Cherokee Indians to the US Congress Reproduced from Congressional Documents in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia. Searchable by ID# PAM009

1832 February 2 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville GA) Clayton announced as part of Troup Party 1832 Congressional Slate

1832 February 25 Greenville Mountaineer (Greenville, SC) re Clayton on Chickasaw Treaty

1832 February 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Congressional Analysis – Clayton opposes Everett resolution on Chickasaw Treaty

1832 February 28 Athenian (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Volunteer Toasts – Clayton toasted during Washington Birthday celebration of local militia

1832 March Peters Report of Cherokee Nation v GA in American Quarterly Review vol 11 no 21 pp 1-30 Extracted from Google Books document by Michael Gagnon.

1832 March 2 New-Hampshire Statesman and State Journal, p3 – The Cherokee Case – short notice of decsion of Worcester v Georgia

1832 March 3 Worcester v Georgia 31 U.S. 515 (1832) decided by US Supreme Court after having heard arguments 1832 February 20, courtesy Oyez. Syllabus. Case courtesy Justicia.

1832 March 5 Gales and Seaton’s Register of Debates, 22nd Congress, 1st Session, pages 2010-2036, Adams presents memorial from citizens of New York against further incarceration of missionaries to Cherokee, and debate ensues. Courtesy of Library of Congress, American Memory.

1832 March 5 Summary of reception of Adams Memorial in House Journal. Courtesy of Library of Congress, American Memory.

1832 March 6 Globe (Wash DC) Congressional – Summarizes Adams NY Memorial

1832 March 6 Globe (Wash DC) Editorial Cherokee Debate

1832 March 7 Daily Chronicle (Philadelphia) p2 – Congress – House Debates Adams Memorial

1832 March 7 Daily Chronicle (Philadelphia) p2 untitled re Clayton comments on Adams Memorial

1832 March 8 Daily Chronicle (Philadelphia) p3 – Congress

1832 March 10 Atkinson’s Saturday Evening Post (Philadelphia) p2 – Extract to the Editor – Mentions Adams memorial and Worcester Decision

1832 March 12 Globe (Wash DC) Georgia Question

1832 March 15 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville GA) Editorial on NY Memorial

1832 March 15 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville GA) Editorial on Worcester Decision

1832 March 17 Macon Telegraph p3 Supreme Court overturns Clayton’s ruling in Worcester v Georgia

1832 March 20 United States Telegraph (Washington, DC) Clayton Speech on Adams NY Memorial

1832 March 20 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Congressional Analysis – debates Clayton’s resolution re BUS and Adams NY Memorial

1832 March 20 Southern Banner (Athens GA) Clayton Letter on Worcester Decision

1832 March 20 Southern Banner (Athens GA) Editorial on Worcester Decision

1832 March 20 Southern Banner (Athens GA) Gov Troup on Worcester Decision

1832 March 20 Southern Banner (Athens GA) Nat’l Intelligencer editorial on Worcester Decision

1832 March 20 Southern Banner (Athens GA) Ridge Party seeks funding

1832 March 21 Scioto Gazette (Chillicothe, Ohio), p2 – Letter from Washington – US Gazette reports dictatorial Jackson will NOT enforce Worcester v GA ruling

1832 March 24 Cherokee Phoenix – Clayton

1832 March 24 Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), pp1-3 – The Cherokee Case – Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v Georgia

1832 March 31 Macon Telegraph p3 Worcester’s attorneys fail to get Gwinnett Sup Ct to issue habeus corpus writ or record Supreme Ct mandate

1832 March 31 Atkinson’s Saturday Evening Post (Philadelphia) p2 – Bruges (RI) replies to Clayton’s comments on Adams NY Memorial

1832 April 3 Albany Argus (Albany NY) p2 – Judge Clayton – Georgia Newspapers support Clayton’s rebuttal of NY Memorial

1832 April 3 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Georgia Question – discusses Worcester v GA mentioning Clayton in Congress championing GAs rights

1832 April 5 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville GA) W District Judge voids Sup Ct writ in W v GA

1832 April 5 Georgia Journal (Milledgeville GA) Clayton Speech on Adams NY Memorial

1832 April 11 Arkansas Gazette (Little Rock, Arkansas), p3 -two articles from US Gazette re Worcester v GA

1832 April 17 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Lawrenceville – Georgia Presbytery has no control over Missionaries who belong to TN Presbytery

1832 April 28 Letter of William Williamson, of the Georgia Guard near Etowah, to Governor Wilson Lumpkin, re telling Cherokee not to count on Worcester decision, found in Telamon Cuyler Collection in Southeastern Native American Documents in Digital Library of Georgia

1832 May 22 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p1 Report from Cherokee Phoenix

1832 May 29 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Thornton’s letter to editor re Cherokee Emigration mentions Clayton’s response to Adams NY Memorial

1832 May 30 Arkansas Gazette (Little Rock, Arkansas), pp1-2 – The Indian Question -Lengthy Mississippi commentary on Georgia being correct

1832 June 9 Atkinson’s Saturday Evening Post (Philadelphia) p2- Tyranny of Georgia – Murder of Tunalue (5-19) near Sixes in Cherokee Nation

1832 June 11 Gales and Seaton’s Register of Debates. 22nd Congress, 1st Session, pages 3400-3420, Congress Debates Georgia and the Missionaries.

1832 June 28 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p1 GA surveys Cherokee country

1832 June 29 Albany Argus p1 – The Cherokee Question – James Camak asks that northern papers print Georgia’s side of Cherokee Question

1832 June 29 Albany Argus p1 – Georgia – The Cherokee Question – Reprints 6-26 daily editorial re Georgia’s attempt to get its side of Cherokee Question aired

1832 September 6 Letter of William Williamson, of the Georgia Guard, to Governor Wilson Lumpkin, in Telamon Cuyler Collection, in Southeastern Native American Documents Database in Digital Library of Georgia

1832 September 21 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p4 – Gold Regions of the South – report of Nationall Intelligencer expects Georgia to double gold output

1832 September 21 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p4 – purported letter from Andrew Jackson to Missions Board re Missionaries imprisoned in GA

1832 September 28 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Office Hunters Look Out – CH Nelson of GA Guard confronts Clayton re nullifying unconstitutional state laws, such as those re Canatoo decision

1832 November 24 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p3 notices Cherokee national council from Phoenix

1833 January 19 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Georgia and the Supreme Court – Docs re Worcester abandons lawsuit

1833 February 2 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – The Nullifiers and the Missionaries – calls GA Nullifiers tools of Calhoun

1833 February 23 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Worcester’s letters to Governor obtaining release

1833 March Missionary Herald (Boston), pp 109-114 – Release of the Imprisoned Missionaries

1833 May Missionary Herald (Boston), pp 183-186 – Letters of Worcester and Butler giving explanation

1833 June 1 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Clayton and other GA congressmen vindicated themselves from Federal Union re Cherokee Treaty

1833 June 08 National Gazette (Philadelphia) p1 – Clayton on Administration negotiations w Cherokee

1833 July 20 The Globe (Washington, DC), p2 – Worcester and Butler Cherokee Missionaries – says missionaries used politically by Lumpkin’s opponents

1833 July 27 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – The Missionaries – continued controversy over the release of the Cherokee Missionaries

1833 November 23 Cherokee Phoenix – Tassels

1833 December 28 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Georgia Gold Region

1833 Sarah Tuttle, Letters and Conversations on the Cherokee Missions, (Boston: Massachusetts Sunday School Society, 1833) 2nd edition, pp. 177-184. A children’s book extracted from Google Books copy by Michael Gagnon.

1834 June 22 (Abridged) Letter of John Ross to William H Underwood found in Gary E. Moulton, The Papers of Chief John Ross, Volume 1 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

1835 February 5 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Cherokees – 3 delegations in Washington with memorials

1835 June18 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Treaty Rejected by the Cherokee

1835 December 31 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – The Georgia Guard, John Howard Payne, etc – says Georgia Guard overstepped when arrested Payne in Tennessee, but he deserved what he got

1836 January 6 Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC), p3 – Case of J Howard Payne -playright abused by GA Guard case reviewed by George R. Clayton

1836 January 16 Pensacola Gazette (Pensacola, Florida), p3 – John Howard Payne – George R. Clayton’s committee in GA legislature reviews Payne’s mistreatment by GA Guard

1836 June 2 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Cherokee Treaty – reports Treaty of New Echota ratified, and thus must be enforced

1836 September 3 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), pp1-2 – Speech of Grantland of Georgia 6-29-1836 – re funding of New Echota Treaty provisions

1837 July 29 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – A Mistake Corrected – commissioners expect trouble enforcing New Echota Treaty on Cherokee in Georgia

1837 September 23 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cheering News – Indian Commissioner Wilson Lumpkin Letter says Cherokee understand they will emigrate under treaty

1838 March 31 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – The Cherokees – 9 companies of GA Guard assembled to remove Cherokee

1838 April 14 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Cherokee Treaty – Senate debate re Cherokee Memorial

1838 June 2 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Cherokee Emigration – says removal going well and Cherokee treated well

1838 June 2 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p3 – Congress The Cherokee – deals continueing to delay removal and add funds for transportation

1838 November 3 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Cherokees – Winfield Scott says only 500 Cherokees agreed w treaty, most leaving cheerfully

1839 September 6 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Political – Clayton’s decision in Tassels case becomes part of gubernatorial race

1839 September 6 Southern Banner (Athens, Georgia), p2 – The Tassels Case – explains issue in gubernatorial race

1843 October 24 Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC), p2 – Communications – Clayton’s 1831 Canatoo decision

1843 November 8 Vermont Chronicle (Windsor, Vermont), p2 erroneously discusses Canatoo case as if just decided

1855 February 15 Southern Watchman (Athens, Georgia), p2 – A Vindication of the Hon Augustin S Clayton Against the aspersions of George R Gilmer, as contained in his Sketches of Georgia

1855 February 15 Southern Watchman (Athens, Georgia), p2 – Judge Clayton – Confirms that Clayton’s son, Philip Clayton, is author of Vindication of Augustin Clayton against George Gilmer


Books:

Clayton, Augustin Smith. A Vindication of the Recent and Prevailing Policy of the State of Georgia, Both in Reference to its Internal Affairs, and to its Relations with the General Government, in Two Series of Essays, originally published in the Columbian Centinel under the Signature of Atticus. Athens, Georgia: O. P. Shaw, 1827. Courtesy Google Books. Adobe Acrobat File.

Clayton, Philip. A Vindication of the Hon. Augustin Smith Clayton against the Aspersions of George R. Gilmer, as contained in his Sketches of Georgia. Washington, G. S. Gideon, Printer, 1855. Courtesy Internet Archive. Adobe Acrobat File.

Evarts, Jeremiah. Essays on the Present Crisis of the American Indians, first published in the National Intelligencer under the Signature of William Penn. Boston, Perkins & Marvin, 1829. Courtesy of Google Books. Adobe Acrobat file.

Gilmer, George Rockingham. Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of Upper Georgia, of the Cherokees, and the Author. New York, D. Appleton and company, 1855. 587 p. Courtesy of Digital Library of Georgia. This work is the property of the University of Georgia Libraries. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching, and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text. Adobe Acrobat file.

Lumpkin, Wilson. The Removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia. By Wilson Lumpkin. Including his speeches in the United States Congress on the Indian question, as representative and senator of Georgia; his official correspondence on the removal of the Cherokees during his two terms as governor of Georgia, and later as United States commissioner to the Cherokees, 1827-1841, together with a sketch of his life and conduct while holding many public offices under the government of Georgia and the United States, prior to 1827, and after 1841 … Wormsloe [Ga.] Priv. print.; New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1907. Courtesy of Digital Library of Georgia. This work is the property of the University of Georgia Libraries. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching, and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text. Adobe Acrobat file. VOL 1. VOL 2.

Speeches on the Passage of the Bill for the Removal of the Indians Delivered in the Congress of the United States, April and May 1830. Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1830. Courtesy Internet Archive. Adobe Acrobat file.

 

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